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Nomura returned to the cabinet as Minister of Communications in under the 2nd Matsukata administration, during which time he attempted to stem the influence of the Mitsubishi zaibatsu , which had been strongly favored by Maejima Hisoka , over control of Japanese shipping. Nomura died in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In this Japanese name , the family name is Nomura. Alternative Narratives in Modern Japanese History. Mitsubishi and the N. Harvard University Asia Center. Text "page " ignored help.

Namespaces Article Talk. By the time the rains abated, much of Edo and its environs were flooded. Of the 34 villages in the Onoji yoseba league, 30 suffered extensive damage. Houses were flooded, irrigations networks were destroyed, and crops were ruined.

Cholera and measles epidemics followed in the late s and early s. Members of the village elite feared that their world was falling apart. As he was only 16 years old, precautions were taken. His birth father, Tomosuke, was appointed guardian and Kojima Tamemasa formalized ties of brotherhood with the young headman. He was described as a reformer who sought to improve village morality. He promoted village schools, and took active measures to halt gambling.

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He helped the rural poor and refused all gifts, protesting that it was his duty as headman to help people in distress. His was the perfect example of benevolent rule jinsei. Traveling scholars Both the Kojima and Ishizaka families were by far the largest landholders in their village.

Both families also made money as pawn brokers. Both families, for example, had libraries of over 10, volumes. He and other members of the village elite regularly welcomed traveling scholars, tea masters, poets, musicians, and swordsmen into their homes. He visited Onoji for the first time in ; Tamemasa and several other local wealthy farmers enrolled as disciples in They joined a roster of over 3, fellow students.

Toyama was similarly a traveling master of Chinese poetry, maintaining regular contact with his disciples; he stayed for a few days in Onoji each year and large numbers of local poets descended upon the Kojima household.

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Fear of lawlessness led wealthy farmers to promote the study of swordsmanship in their villages. The Tennen Rishin school was especially popular. In the s and s such halls were set up throughout the Tama district. Alongside Confucian scholarship and the composition of Chinese verse, swordsmanship became part of the required cultivation of male members of the wealthy farming class.

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They kept abreast of news from Edo and from Kyoto and were concerned observers of the dramatic events that led to the Meiji Restoration. To be sure, there were unprincipled men in the villages with wealth and power, and many local merchants were quick to take advantage of new opportunities for profit, but in the Tama district the local elite were noted for their sympathy with the plight of the poor. For services rendered when the road was constructed in the early seventeenth century, Onoji and several other villages were granted perpetual immunity from the obligation, placed on other villages, to provide packhorses and labor for highway services sukego.

They were able to keep this privileged status until , when increased traffic made additional sources of labor and revenue necessary. In the ninth month Onoji, Notsuda, and nine other villages were ordered to make special contributions for post station expenses.

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At the beginning of the next month Tamemasa led a delegation of village headmen to Edo to protest the new burdens. During his stay in Edo, Tamemasa kept a special diary in which he detailed the progress of their campaign. Farmers, the documents stated, were already overtaxed and needed help from the bakufu to quell roving bands of ruffians who were disturbing the peace.

Thereafter, day after day, the headmen made the rounds of various bakufu and hatamoto offices in order to advance their cause. On the 23rd another petition was submitted. Word circulated that petitions submitted by other villages, also seeking exemptions, had been rejected. On the 29th, the Onoji delegation received their formal rejection.

He remained in Edo for one month; on the 6th day of the twelfth month Tamemasa presented a new petition to the Commissioner of Roads. This petition was rejected on the 9th but, undaunted, Tamemasa began to draw up another petition. In this endeavor he was joined by other village headmen who were similarly refusing to accept the bakufu decree.

Again the village headmen protested. Petitions were submitted and when these failed, in the fifth month Tamemasa and thirteen other village headmen submitted their resignations en masse as one final strategy. The country is beset by problems from within A policy of wealth and power is one solution Through it we can sweep away the long-standing threat from outside And the true spirit of our divine country will spread throughout the five continents. High commodity prices forced many to turn to the pawnshop and some to contemplate robbery.


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  • Merchants who profited from the opening of foreign trade were easily the object of scorn. He went on to list ten recent incidents of murder and the use of rifles and cannon on farmers armed only with bamboo spears. Reports of rioting, robbery, and murders filled the pages of Tamemasa diary for and He noted the anger of the poor over the rise in commodity prices and the fear of the rich of being attacked. His coverage of the BushH Outburst was especially detailed. On the one hand, Tamemasa sympathized with the distress of the rioting farmers; corrupt merchants deserved the punishment of heaven.

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    The poor had risen up seeking a better society yonaoshi. On the other hand, there was the urgent need to restore law and order. Still, he and other village leaders could not rest easy. Fearing possible action by small cultivators, Tamemasa ordered relief rice for the Onoji poor. At the same time he hurried the organization and training of an Onoji village militia.

    Regulations were drawn up and a chain of command created. Most were armed with spears and swords, but Kojima also managed to purchase 15 modern rifles through the offices of the Tomita family, the Onoji hatamoto overlord in Edo. A makeshift wooden cannon completed the arsenal. Uniforms, helmets, packs, canteens, and other equipment were issued.