During the matching phase, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm e. Hamming distance. The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose e.
Selection of biometrics in any practical application depending upon the characteristic measurements and user requirements. Selection of a biometric based on user requirements considers sensor and device availability, computational time and reliability, cost, sensor size and power consumption. Multimodal biometric systems use multiple sensors or biometrics to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometric systems.
While unimodal biometric systems are limited by the integrity of their identifier, it is unlikely that several unimodal systems will suffer from identical limitations. Multimodal biometric systems can obtain sets of information from the same marker i. Multimodal biometric systems can fuse these unimodal systems sequentially, simultaneously, a combination thereof, or in series, which refer to sequential, parallel, hierarchical and serial integration modes, respectively.
Fusion of the biometrics information can occur at different stages of a recognition system. In case of feature level fusion, the data itself or the features extracted from multiple biometrics are fused. Matching-score level fusion consolidates the scores generated by multiple classifiers pertaining to different modalities. Finally, in case of decision level fusion the final results of multiple classifiers are combined via techniques such as majority voting. Feature level fusion is believed to be more effective than the other levels of fusion because the feature set contains richer information about the input biometric data than the matching score or the output decision of a classifier.
Therefore, fusion at the feature level is expected to provide better recognition results. Spoof attacks consist in submitting fake biometric traits to biometric systems, and are a major threat that can curtail their security. Multi-modal biometric systems are commonly believed to be intrinsically more robust to spoof attacks, but recent studies  have shown that they can be evaded by spoofing even a single biometric trait. The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems: . An early cataloguing of fingerprints dates back to when Juan Vucetich started a collection of fingerprints of criminals in Argentina.
Adaptive biometric systems aim to auto-update the templates or model to the intra-class variation of the operational data. Recently, adaptive biometrics have received a significant attention from the research community. This research direction is expected to gain momentum because of their key promulgated advantages.
First, with an adaptive biometric system, one no longer needs to collect a large number of biometric samples during the enrollment process. Second, it is no longer necessary to enrol again or retrain the system from scratch in order to cope with the changing environment. This convenience can significantly reduce the cost of maintaining a biometric system.
Despite these advantages, there are several open issues involved with these systems. For mis-classification error false acceptance by the biometric system, cause adaptation using impostor sample. However, continuous research efforts are directed to resolve the open issues associated to the field of adaptive biometrics. More information about adaptive biometric systems can be found in the critical review by Rattani et al. In recent times, biometrics based on brain electroencephalogram and heart electrocardiogram signals have emerged. Another example is finger vein recognition , using pattern-recognition techniques, based on images of human vascular patterns.
The advantage of such 'futuristic' technology is that it is more fraud resistant compared to conventional biometrics like fingerprints. However, such technology is generally more cumbersome and still has issues such as lower accuracy and poor reproducibility over time. This new generation of biometrical systems is called biometrics of intent and it aims to scan intent. The technology will analyze physiological features such as eye movement, body temperature, breathing etc. On the portability side of biometric products, more and more vendors are embracing significantly miniaturized biometric authentication systems BAS thereby driving elaborate cost savings, especially for large-scale deployments.
An operator signature is a biometric mode where the manner in which a person using a device or complex system is recorded as a verification template. National Intelligence , and Senior Vice President of Booz Allen Hamilton promoted the development of a future capability to require biometric authentication to access certain public networks in his keynote speech  at the Biometric Consortium Conference. A basic premise in the above proposal is that the person that has uniquely authenticated themselves using biometrics with the computer is in fact also the agent performing potentially malicious actions from that computer.
However, if control of the computer has been subverted, for example in which the computer is part of a botnet controlled by a hacker, then knowledge of the identity of the user at the terminal does not materially improve network security or aid law enforcement activities. Recently, another approach to biometric security was developed, this method scans the entire body of prospects to guarantee a better identification of this prospect.
This method is not globally accepted because it is very complex and prospects are concerned about their privacy. Rather than tags or tattoos, biometric techniques may be used to identify individual animals: zebra stripes, blood vessel patterns in rodent ears, muzzle prints, bat wing patterns, primate facial recognition and koala spots have all been tried. Biometrics have been considered also instrumental to the development of state authority  to put it in Foucauldian terms, of discipline and biopower .
By turning the human subject into a collection of biometric parameters, biometrics would dehumanize the person,  infringe bodily integrity, and, ultimately, offend human dignity. Agamben argued that gathering of biometric data is a form of bio-political tattooing, akin to the tattooing of Jews during the Holocaust. According to Agamben, biometrics turn the human persona into a bare body.
Agamben refers to the two words used by Ancient Greeks for indicating "life", zoe , which is the life common to animals and humans, just life; and bios , which is life in the human context, with meanings and purposes. Agamben envisages the reduction to bare bodies for the whole humanity. The stark expansion of biometric technologies in both the public and private sector magnifies this concern.
The increasing commodification of biometrics by the private sector adds to this danger of loss of human value. Indeed, corporations value the biometric characteristics more than the individuals value them. Other scholars  have emphasized, however, that the globalized world is confronted with a huge mass of people with weak or absent civil identities. Most developing countries have weak and unreliable documents and the poorer people in these countries do not have even those unreliable documents. In such a sense, biometrics could play a pivotal role in supporting and promoting respect for human dignity and fundamental rights.
The biometrics of intent poses further risks. In his paper in Harvard International Review, Prof Nayef Al-Rodhan cautions about the high risks of miscalculations, wrongful accusations and infringements of civil liberties.
The Changing Landscape of Mobile Biometrics | Veridium
Critics in the US have also signalled a conflict with the 4th Amendment. It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. There are three categories of privacy concerns: . When thieves cannot get access to secure properties, there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. If the item is secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and potentially cost more than the secured property.
For example, in , Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. These attacks can be either impersonation or obfuscation attacks. Impersonation attacks try to gain access by pretending to be someone else. Obfuscation attacks may, for example, try to evade face detection and face recognition systems. Recently several methods have been proposed to counteract presentation attacks. One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued. If a token or a password is lost or stolen, it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version.
This is not naturally available in biometrics. If someone's face is compromised from a database, they cannot cancel or reissue it. If the electronic biometric identifier is stolen, it is nearly impossible to change a biometric feature. This renders the person's biometric feature questionable for future use in authentication, such as the case with the hacking of security-clearance-related background information from the Office of Personnel Management OPM in the United States. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics to create a more secure system.
It was first proposed by Ratha et al. If a cancelable feature is compromised, the distortion characteristics are changed, and the same biometrics is mapped to a new template, which is used subsequently. Cancelable biometrics is one of the major categories for biometric template protection purpose besides biometric cryptosystem. Several methods for generating new exclusive biometrics have been proposed.
The first fingerprint-based cancelable biometric system was designed and developed by Tulyakov et al. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme. Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition engines, such as Teoh et al.
Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system, it makes the cancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies. Soft biometrics traits are physical, behavioral or adhered human characteristics that have been derived from the way human beings normally distinguish their peers e. They are used to complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers. Although soft biometric characteristics lack the distinctiveness and permanence to recognize an individual uniquely and reliably, and can be easily faked, they provide some evidence about the users identity that could be beneficial.
In other words, despite the fact they are unable to individualize a subject, they are effective in distinguishing between people. Combinations of personal attributes like gender, race, eye color, height and other visible identification marks can be used to improve the performance of traditional biometric systems. Two main ethical issues are raised by soft biometrics. Second, soft biometrics have strong potential for categorizing and profiling people, so risking of supporting processes of stigmatization and exclusion.
Many countries, including the United States, are planning to share biometric data with other nations. In testimony before the US House Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Homeland Security on "biometric identification" in , Kathleen Kraninger and Robert A Mocny  commented on international cooperation and collaboration with respect to biometric data, as follows:. According to an article written in by S.
Certain members of the civilian community are worried about how biometric data is used but full disclosure may not be forthcoming. In particular, the Unclassified Report of the United States' Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Biometrics states that it is wise to protect, and sometimes even to disguise, the true and total extent of national capabilities in areas related directly to the conduct of security-related activities.
It goes on to say that this is a classic feature of intelligence and military operations. In short, the goal is to preserve the security of ' sources and methods '. Among low to middle income countries, roughly 1. There are also numerous countries applying biometrics for voter registration and similar electoral purposes. India's national ID program called Aadhaar is the largest biometric database in the world.
It is a biometrics-based digital identity assigned for a person's lifetime, verifiable  online instantly in the public domain, at any time, from anywhere, in a paperless way. The data is transmitted in encrypted form over the internet for authentication, aiming to free it from the limitations of physical presence of a person at a given place. About million residents have been enrolled and assigned million Aadhaar national identification numbers as of 7 November The dictionary definition of biometrics at Wiktionary.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal of statistics in biology, see Biometrics journal. For the application of statistics to topics in biology , see Biostatistics. For the fraudulently marketed "thigh contour treatment", see Peter Foster. Further information: Biostatistics. Further information: privacy , right to privacy , and medical privacy.
Main article: Countries applying biometrics. Biometric voice recognition is separate and distinct from speech recognition with the latter being concerned with accurate understanding of speech content rather than identification or recognition of the person speaking. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved Biometrics Research Group.
Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 10 November Ethics and Information Technology. Communications of the ACM , 43 2 , p. Handbook of Biometrics. Archived from the original on 9 March IET Biometrics. Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 29 July Computer , 39 2 , p.
DOI This system is easy to use and install. It requires cheap equipment which generally has low power consumption. However, there are some disadvantages in this system. Furthermore, the system requires the users' finger surface to have a point of minutiae or pattern in order to have matching images. This will be a limitation factor for the security of the algorithm.
Fingerprint security system is used widely in different applications such as: cell phones, laptops, USB flash drives and others devices. It is also used in judicial systems in order to record users' information and verify one person's identity [Biometricsnewportal ]. There are two main factors which makes a person's voice unique.
Firstly, it is the physiological component which is known as the voice tract. Secondly, it is a behavioral component which is known as the voice accent. By combining both of these factors, it is almost impossible to imitate another person's voice exactly. Taking advantages of these characteristics, biometrics technology created voice recognition systems in order to verify each person's identification using only their voice. Mainly, voice recognition will focus on the vocal tract because it is a unique characteristic of a physiological trait.
It works perfectly in physical access control for users [O'Neill, ]. Voice recognition systems are easy to install and it requires a minimal amount of equipment. However, there are still some factors which can affect the quality of the system. Firstly, performance of users when they record their voice to database is important. On the other hand, unauthorized users can record authorized users' voices and run it through the verification process in order to get user access control to system.
To prevent the risk of unauthorized access via recording devices, voice recognition systems will ask users to repeat random phases which are provided by the system during verification state [O'Neill, ]. The human iris is a thin circular structure in the eyes which is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils. It also controls the amount of light which is allowed through to retinal in order to protect the eye's retina.
Iris color is also a variable different to each person depending upon their genes. Iris color will decide eye color for each individual. There are several colors for iris such as: brown most popular color for the iris , green, blue, grey, hazel the combination of brown, green and gold , violet, pink in really rare cases. The iris also has its own patterns from eye to eye and person to person, this will make up to uniqueness for each individual [Biometricsnewportal ].
Iris recognition systems will scan the iris in different ways. It will analyze over points of the iris including: rings, furrows, freckles, the corona and others characteristics. After recording data from each individual, it will save the information in a database for future use in comparing it every time a user want to access to the system [Biometricsnewportal ]. Iris recognition security systems are considered as one of the most accurate security system nowadays.
It is unique and easy to identify a user. Even though the system requires installation equipment and expensive fees, it is still the easiest and fastest method to identify a user. There should be no physical contact between the user and the system during the verification process. During the verification process, if the users are wearing accessories such as glasses and contact lenses, the system will work as normal because it does not change any characteristics of the user's iris. Theoretically, even if users have eye surgery, it will have no effect on the iris characteristics of that individual [Biometricsnewportal ].
One of the recent biometric technologies invented is the vein recognition system. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. Each person's veins have unique physical and behavioral traits. Taking advantage of this, biometrics uses unique characteristics of the veins as a method to identify the user. Vein recognition systems mainly focus on the veins in the users hands. Each finger on human hand has veins which connect directly with the heart and it has its own physical traits [O'Neill, ].
Compared to the other biometric systems, the user's veins are located inside the human body. Therefore, the recognition system will capture images of the vein patterns inside of users' fingers by applying light transmission to each finger. For more details, the method works by passing near-infrared light through fingers, this way a camera can record vein patterns [O'Neill, ].
Vein recognition systems are getting more attention from experts because it has many other functions which other biometrics technologies do not have. It has a higher level of security which can protect information or access control much better. The level of accuracy used in vein recognition systems is very impressive and reliable by the comparison of the recorded database to that of the current data.
Furthermore, it also has a low cost on installation and equipment. One of biometrics technology which is used in security systems recently is DNA biometrics. It is impossible to fake this characteristic because each person's DNA is unique. Each cell in the human body contains a copy of this DNA. DNA profiling will decide the amount of VNTR variable number tandem repeat which repeats at a number of distinctive loci. In order to collect DNA from each person, the system needs time and goes through several complex steps. Firstly, it needs to collect the DNA from a physical sample of each user such as blood, saliva, hair, semen, tissue and others.
Then, it needs to break down the samples into small fragments which contain VNTR. Next, the size of each DNA fragment will be measured and sorted before it is compared to different samples [Maestre, ]. DNA biometrics technology is highly unique and the chance of two individuals having the exact same DNA profile is extremely impossible, but this technology is still new and is hardly applied in public. Furthermore, the system will need to get physical samples hair, blood, etc.
Another factor that makes this system highly unused is time. The system requires long periods of time to go through all the processes of creating a DNA profile for each individual and verifying each individual's individual DNA profile. Due to these limitations and barriers, DNA biometrics is not used nearly as much as facial, iris, vein or voice recognition biometric systems. In near future, there will be solutions for these problems and we can actually apply this unique and better biometrics technology in our daily life [Biometricsnewportal ]. However, its application is still used to verify the identification of users.
By combining 2-D barcode and biometrics data, it will create a better security level which can be accessed easily and faster. By using this method, security levels of system cannot be easily penetrated by the unauthorized users. It provides a more effective and efficient security system [Wikipedia - data metrics]. Applications for 2-D barcode biometrics technology have been used for a certain time but it is not popular because users have not seen the benefit in identifying users.
It can be used for scanning the identity of user's driver license, passport, ID cards, voter cards, etc. It is installed with a sensor to read physical traits from items or individuals. Furthermore, 2-D barcode systems will print 2-D barcodes on the documents which contain the person's biometrics information. This step is provided in order to enhance the security capability [Wikipedia - data metrics]. A 2-D scanner can be a light-weight device which can be carried around.
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It is also easy to install with low costs on installation and equipment. It is also more flexible than other methods and the result of verification is much faster.
Middleware and software for biometrics security system provides the link between services and instructions through the use of multiple processes. The middleware helps the biometrics devices and the database run effectively across the network. Middleware and software also connects biometrics devices and the computers together, while working compatibly with each other on the network.
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Furthermore, the software and middleware used by the biometrics systems form an integral part to the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole biometrics security system. The first advantage of using this new technology is the uniqueness and it is also the main characteristic which allows biometrics technology to become more and more important in our lives. With uniqueness of biometrics technology, each individual's identification will be single most effective identification for that user. A chance of two users having the same identification in the biometrics security technology system is nearly zero [Tistarelli, ].
Secondly, the highly secure way of identifying users makes this technology less prone for users to share access to highly sensitive data. For example, users can share their fingerprints, iris and so forth allowing other users access to secure information. Each trait used during identification is a single property of that user.
In other words, it is extremely hard or impossible to make duplicate or share biometrics accessing data with other users.
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This makes it ever more secure allowing user information and data to be kept highly secure from unauthorized users [Tistarelli, ]. Lastly, this identification of users though biometrics cannot be lost, stolen or forgotten. This aspect of biometrics technology allows it to become more popular in its use. This method of identifying and giving access to user makes user identification a lot easier. Figure - Advantages of biometrics security system [Arc Aspicio, ]. Even though, there are many advantages of biometrics security system, it still has many flaws in its system. Each biometrics application method has weaknesses which can cause problems for its users.
For voice recognition methods, illnesses such as strep throat can make it hard for authorized users to get access to their information. Another factor that can influence voice recognition systems is the continuous aging of its users.
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Noise in an environment where voice recognition is used to identify its users can also make it hard for users to be identified [PBworks ]. For iris or retinal scanning applications, users may find it very intrusive. Users may also have the concern for the safety of their eyes during the iris or retinal scan. Furthermore, databases used to store user identification data will be very large which might form a potential threat.
Therefore, the cost for equipment is also expensive [PBworks ]. Finally, lots of people are still concerned about biometrics technology in different aspects such as: security, adaptability to rate of change in life, scalbility, accuracy, privacy and others. As we can see from different products from various companies, biometrics technology has major effects on our lives.
Biometrics technology provides us with great number of new inventions which improves both the quality and the longevity of our lives. Nowadays, biometrics technology is considered one of the best protection methods of user information, data, etc. Basically, biometrics technology method will collect and measure data of human physiology and behavior. There are several ways to collect and measure data of users such as: scanning the unique characteristics of the person retinal, finger-print, facial expression, etc.
The main purpose of biometric system is to identify and verify a person's identity. Biometrics technology is more convenient than other protection technologies of identity authentication. For example, ID card student IDs in school is one of the examples to authenticate a user's identity. If you forget your ID card at home then you will not be able to access to school building. In this case, biometrics system will be more efficient and useful because chances that you forgot your eyes or fingers at home are very unlikely.
With biometrics security system, we just need to verify our identity by the unique characteristics that are always with us reducing the chances of losing ID cards and other identifying accessories. Furthermore, ID cards can be duplicated increasing the risk of unauthorized users gaining access to import data. With our own unique characteristics and behaviors, it will be harder to change or make copies.